Plastic Surgery or Reconstructive Surgery Sciences in India

Plastic surgery is a surgical specialty involving the restoration, reconstruction, or alteration of the human body. It can be divided into two categories. The first is reconstructive surgery which includes craniofacial surgery, hand surgery, microsurgery, and the treatment of burns. The other is cosmetic or aesthetic surgery.While reconstructive surgery aims to reconstruct a part of the body or improve its functioning, cosmetic surgery aims at improving the appearance of it.

Reconstructive surgery is all about repairing people and restoring function. It is performed to repair and reshape bodily structures affected by birth defects, developmental abnormalities, trauma/injuries, infections, tumours and disease.From the top of the head to the tip of the toe, and from newborn babies to the very elderly, reconstructive surgery is used to treat a wide range of conditions.Using a wide range of reconstructive techniques, plastic surgeons mend holes and repair damage primarily through the transfer of tissue from one part of the body to another. Their main aim is to restore the body, or the function of a specific part of the body, to normal.

What problems and conditions are treated with reconstructive surgery?

Reconstructive surgery is used to treat a wide range of conditions which fall into the two following categories, congenital and acquired:


Congenital conditions are those that are present at birth. Congenital conditions that are treated with reconstructive surgery include:

Cleft lip and palate: Using local flaps and grafts, surgeons can repair the incompletely fused area of the lip and palate.

Vascular anomalies, such as birthmarks: Surgical excision, combined with other treatment options, are available for the treatment of arteriovenous malformations (AVM) and certain haemangiomas.

Prominent ears, constricted ears and microtia: Reconstructive surgery is used to correct all manner of ear defects; techniques include otoplasty for prominent or constricted ears and ‘autogenous ear reconstruction’ for the treatment of microtia.

Hypospadias: Soft tissue reconstruction is used to correct this defect of the urethra in baby boys.

Craniofacial conditions: Reconstructive surgery is used to correct a wide range of cranial and facial deformations, such as craniosynostosis.

Hand deformities: Plastic surgeons can also correct birth defects of the hand – e.g. where a child has been born with too many or too few digits.


Acquired conditions are those that develop or occur after birth. They can involve disease and infection, or they can involve accident and injury. Acquired conditions that are treated with reconstructive surgery include:

Cancer: Plastic surgeons spend a great deal of time operating on cancer patients. Reconstructive surgery, mainly excision, closure and flap reconstruction, is used to treat a range of cancer conditions, especially cancer of the skin, breast, head and neck and sarcoma.

Trauma: Reconstructive surgical techniques are crucial in the treatment of trauma and injury. These injuries most commonly involve the hand – in fact, 50% of the work carried out in many plastic surgery units is concerned with hand trauma. The treatment of open fractures of the lower limb is also common, as is surgery to repair soft tissue injuries of the face.

Infection Reconstructive surgery is used to remove dead tissue following severe infections and to repair the surrounding area.

Burns: Plastic surgeons are the primary clinicians involved in the resuscitation, surgical treatment and reconstruction of patients who have suffered burns.

Hand surgery: Plastic surgeons are involved in the management of a wide range of conditions that affect the hand including nerve compression, paralysis, arthritis, ganglions and Dupuytren’s Contracture

Why is Plastic Surgery or Reconstructive Surgery Preferred in India?

The Cosmetic Surgery department has a team of experienced technicians and surgeons, with the proverbial best in latest technology to come up with effective yet minimally invasive cosmetic reconstruction methods. Some of their more well-known and successful procedures include facelift, rhinoplasty, liposuction, eyelid surgery, breast reduction, breast augmentation, breast lift, tummy tuck, body lift, hair transplant, laser resurfacing, laser hair removal, reconstructive surgeries and hand surgery.