Nephrology Sciences in India

Nephrology concerns the diagnosis and treatment of kidney diseases, including electrolyte disturbances and hypertension, and the care of those requiring renal replacement therapy, including dialysis and renal transplant patients. Many diseases affecting the kidney are systemic disorders not limited to the organ itself, and may require special treatment. Examples include acquired conditions such as systemic vasculitides and autoimmune diseases, as well as congenital or genetic conditions such as polycystic kidney disease.

Why is Nephrology Treatment Preferred in India?

Treatments in nephrology can include medications, blood products, surgical interventions (urology, vascular or surgical procedures), renal replacement therapy (dialysis or kidney transplantation) and plasma exchange. Kidney problems can have significant impact on quality and length of life, and so psychological support, health education and advanced care planning play key roles in nephrology.

When the kidneys are no longer able to sustain the demands of the body, end-stage kidney failure is said to have occurred. Without renal replacement therapy, death from kidney failure will eventually result. Dialysis is an artificial method of replacing some kidney function to prolong life. Renal transplantation replaces kidney function by inserting into the body a healthier kidney from an organ donor and inducing immunologic tolerance of that organ with immunosuppression. At present, renal transplantation is the most effective treatment for end-stage kidney failure although its worldwide availability is limited by lack of availability of donor organs.

Diseases under the branch of nephrology

  • Glomerular disorders that affect the tiny filtering systems of the kidneys called the glomerulus.
  • Urine abnormalities such as excess excretion of protein, sugar, blood, casts, crystals etc.
  • Tubulointerstitial diseases affecting the tubules in the kidneys.
  • Renal vascular diseases affecting the blood vessel networks within the kidneys.
  • Renal failure that can be sudden or acute or long term or chronic.
  • Kidney and bladder stones.
  • Kidney infections.
  • Cancers of the kidneys, bladder, and urethra.
  • Effects of diseases like diabetes and high blood pressure on kidneys.
  • Acid base imbalances.
  • Nephrotic syndrome and nephritis.
  • Ill effects of drugs and toxins on the kidneys.
  • Dialysis and its long term complications – dialysis includes hemodialysis as well as peritoneal dialysis.
  • Autoimmune diseases including autoimmune vasculitis, lupus, etc.
  • Polycystic kidneys diseases where large cysts or fluid filled sacs are formed within the kidney impairing its functions – this is a congenital and inherited or genetic condition.