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Herniated Disc Surgery in India

People who are suffering from leg pain, weakness of the lower extremity muscles or back pain are diagnosed with a herniated disc. A herniated disc occurs when the cushion which sits in between the spinal vertebra is pressed outside its normal position. The condition of herniated disc can cause pain weakness or numbness in an arm or leg. It can also irritate the surrounding nerves. It has been seen that many people develop no symptoms of a herniated disc.

Causes of a Herniated Disc

The most common reason that cause a herniated disc is disc degeneration (wear and tear of the disc). The normal ageing process decreases the fluid in the vertebral disc that helps in maintaining proper flexibility. Any injury to the spine can also cause a herniated disc that may cause cracks or small tears in the outer layer of the disc. Inside the disc there is a jelly like material that can be pushed out from the cracks or tears in the capsule, causing the disc to break into fragments or bulge.

Injury to the disc can be due to –

  • Repeated activities that may stress the lower back such as prolonged exposure to vibration, poor lifting habits and sports related injuries.
  • Increased pressure or a sudden heavy strain to the lower back. A sudden twisting movement can push the nucleus out of the outer layer of the disc.

Symptoms of a Herniated Disc

Common Symptoms of Herniated Disc include -

Tingling and Numbness : A patient experiences some abnormal sensations of numbness, pin or needles and tingling. Usually all these symptoms occur in the same area and can be similar to painful electric shock sensations.

Electric Shock Pain : Abnormal sensations are caused by the nerve pressure. This sensation is similar to an electric shock pain. When there is a compression in the neck region then shock goes down to the arms and when compression is in the low back region then shock goes down to the legs.

Bladder or Bowel Problems : Bladder or bowel problems are an important indication of cauda equine syndrome. This condition usually results from a herniated disc.

Muscle Weakness : It could be possible that signals from the brain may get disturbed due to nerve irritation that further causes muscle weakness.

Diagnosis of a Herniated Disc

The condition of a herniated disc is diagnosed when its symptoms are present. With the help of neurological examinations, abnormal reflexes can be revealed. A positive straight leg raising test is done in order to elicit the pain when a straight leg is raised while sitting or lying. An abnormal sensation could also be there in the leg or foot. In order to determine any signs of infection or inflammation, many blood tests are done. The degeneration of the spine is indicated by plain film X-rays. Also CT scan or MRI scan is performed for determining whether or not a disc is herniated. The irritation in the nerves due to a disc herniation can be precisely determined by using an electromyogram (EMG).

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